Knowledge Products

FEBA members collaborate through both formal working groups as well as ad-hoc groups to produce collective knowledge products on a range of thematic issues, working to advance awareness, understanding and uptake of nature-based solutions for adpatation and resilience in on-ground efforts, local and national adaptation planning, and multilateral policy frameworks. See the full repository of FEBA knowledge products below.

View the FEBA newsletter for knowledge products by FEBA members!

Loss & Damage, Ecosystem Integrity and Nature-based Solutions


Loss and damage refers to the current and unavoidable impacts of climate change experienced by millions of people across the globe. Ecosystem loss and degradation, exacerbated by climate change, is a major component of loss and damage. The Friends of EbA and the Partnership for Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR) jointly produced an issue brief for COP27 that outlined the state of the negotiations on Loss & Damage with a focus on how ecosystem integrity and the implementation and financing of Nature-based Solutions can contribute to averting, minimising and addressing loss and damage.  This issue briefly emphasises how the relationship between climate vulnerability and ecosystem health is reciprocal: while healthy ecosystems enhance climate resilience, the effects of climate change typically reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide these services. 

Investment in Nature-based Solutions provides one of the most cost-effective means to create climate resilience for vulnerable and marginalised communities and the ecosystems they depend on, and offers one pathway for averting, minimising and addressing loss and damage. However, in order to maximise the success of NbS it is vital to account for climate change induced losses of ecosystems and their services, and the resulting effect on future risk reduction.

This brief was produced in partnership with PEDRR as a contribution to the ongoing negotiations on L&D under UNFCCC.

Nature-based Solutions and the Global Goal on Adaptation


Nature-based Solutions for adaptation – consisting of a wide range of ecosystem management activities, such as the sustainable management of forests, grasslands, and wetlands, that increase the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of people and the environment to climate change – offer a critical pathway to define and implement an effective Global Goal on Adaptation and drive and enhance countries’ adaptation actions.  This FEBA issue brief, produced for COP27, focused on how NbS for adaptationoffer a critical pathway to define and implement an effective Global Goal on Adaptation and drive and enhance countries’ adaptation actions, with an emphasis on ensuring the incorporation, implementation, monitoring and financing of Nature-based Solutions within the GGA. The paper explores how current knowledge from adaptation practitioners working on NbS can be leveraged in support of both setting and achieving the Global Goal on Adaptation – across monitoring and evaluation, capacity building and technology transfer, and increasing finance.

This paper is presented by FEBA as a contribution to the ongoing negotiations on the Global Goal on Adaptation under the UNFCCC.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and the successful implementation and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals

Report by the FEBA EbA and SDGs Working Group

Nature-based climate solutions such as EbA have an interconnected role across sustainable development goals – from health, water and nutrition to clean energy, sustainable infrastructure, and equality – with incredible potential to drive progress across the SDGs while building more equitable and resilient societies. This joint technical report, developed by the Friends of Ecosystem-based Adaptation in collaboration with SwedBio, dives into of the connections between EbA and each of the 17 SDGs, with each of the 17 sections addressing threats posed by climate change, ecosystem degradation, and/or biodiversity loss, including how these impede the achievement of a given SDG. Each section subsequently provides an overview of how an effectively implemented EbA approach can underpin successful achievement of a given SDG. The full bibliography provides context and information for expanding this knowledge base.

The EbA and SDGs Working Group coordinated by  SwedBio and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, launched this report at the UN High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development.

Innovative Approaches for Strengthening Coastal and Ocean Adaptation: Integrating Technology and Nature-based Solutions

This policy brief provides an overview of the value of integrated adaptation solutions and the challenges and opportunities to increase their uptake and scaling, including through interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approaches based on partnerships; supportive policy and regulatory frameworks; sustained, innovative and accessible financing; and use of evidence-based targets. It also summarised actions and recommendations for scaling up innovative approaches to achieve multiple benefits for people and nature.

Technology Day” (TD) is a series of events whose objective is to promote innovative approaches to deploy, disseminate and scale up adaptation technologies in various key sectors.

IUCN, the Friends of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (FEBA) network, and UNFCCC Technology Executive Committee (TEC), in collaboration with the UNFCCC Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) Expert Group on Oceans, co-hosted a series of sessions alongside major events throughout 2021, including the IUCN World Conservation Congress (WCC), Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) chair lobby, and the COP 26 UN Climate Change Conference. Learn more about each event on the FEBA and Technology Day webpages. See below for outcomes documents from each of the three events.

Ecosystems and Technology: Innovative Approaches to Strengthening Coastal and Ocean Adaptation

National Policy, Local Action: Scaling integrated approaches to strengthening coastal and ocean adaptation

The Best of Both Worlds: Harnessing Adaptation Technologies and Nature-based Solutions to Enhance Coastal and Ocean Resilience

PEDRR/FEBA Recommendations based on the 1st draft of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

In October 2020, the Partnership for Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR) and FEBA released a policy brief “Promoting Nature-based Solutions in the post-2020 global biodiversity framework”. This brief aimed to clarify the terminology of Nature-based Solutions and how it relates to ecosystem-based approaches such as adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Additionally, it underpinned why incorporating NbS within the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) has the potential to bring about transformational change in society’s relationship with nature, accelerate progress towards the SDGs, and ensure that, by 2050, the shared vision of living in harmony with nature is fulfilled.

PEDRR and FEBA welcome the first draft of the framework as a major step towards securing a crucial global biodiversity agreement. However, in line with PEDRR and FEBA’s aims, we provide recommendations for Member States to help ensure a final global biodiversity framework that ensures resilience of biodiversity and ecosystems in the face of climate change and increasing disaster risk.

Download the recommendations.

View the event which focused on this publication, convened by the Partnership for Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR), FEBA and the Geneva Environment Network (GEN).

Nature-based Solutions in Humanitarian Contexts: Key Messages

The cross-network Nature-based Solutions in Humanitarian Contexts working group convenes stakeholders across FEBA, the Environment and Humanitarian Action Network (EHAN) and the Partnership for Disaster Risk Reduction (PEDRR) networks to synthesise and integrate Nature-based Solutions and environmental safeguarding as a core component strategy for how humanitarian and development work is done.

The technical key messages provided in this document emphasise the relevance of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) for the humanitarian sector, particularly in the context of strengthening climate and disaster resilience.

View the key messages document, which includes important asks for stakeholders and interested parties.

Guidelines for Integrating Ecosystem-based Adaptation into National Adaptation Plans

The Guidelines aim to guide adaptation practitioners at national and local levels on how to take integrative steps when factoring ecosystem functions and services into countries’ NAP processes and instruments. The Guidelines detail the multiple benefits as well as the challenges of adopting ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation; what information to collect and generate; what expertise to seek; and which stakeholders to engage for successfully integrating EbA into NAP formulation, implementation, and review processes.

The Guidelines have been developed, in collaboration with the FEBA network, under the National Adaptation Plan-Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP), implemented jointly by United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Development Programme that supports the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in advancing their NAPs.

The Guidelines are available to download here and an accompanying web story is viewable here.

Climate justice for people and nature through urban Ecosystem-based Adaptation: A focus on the Global South

by the FEBA Urban EbA Working Group

This paper shows practical examples of Urban EbA interventions gathered through an online survey, exploring their links with the seven EbA Social Principles.

Alongside an analysis of 31 practical examples of urban EbA interventions, six in-depth case study narratives are further explored through multimedia StoryMaps. By analysing the surveyed case studies through the lens of the EbA Social Principles, this paper demonstrates the potential of EbA interventions to deliver climate-just outcomes for urban areas in the Global South.

The technical paper is available to download here and the case study StoryMaps are viewable here.

7th EbA Knowledge Day Documentation

Overcoming Barriers to Adaptation: Employing Innovative EbA Approaches to Upscale Nature-based Solutions (NbS)

This EbA Knowledge Day focused on identifying and overcoming key barriers to adaptation planning and implementation through innovation in EbA, including through reaching across sectors and highlighting new approaches and opportunities. The event included remarks by high-level officials, a panel discussion, and in-depth interactive sessions.

The event was jointly organized by GIZ & IUCN, under the Friends of EbA (FEBA). The EbA Global Project on Mainstreaming EbA is also supporting an EbA Community of Practice, with an annual EbA Community of Practice Workshop, the next which will be held in November 2021.

You can find recordings of the welcome session, and panel discussion on the EbA CoP YouTube channel. The high-level Minister remarks from the Hon. Carolina Schmidt, MOE Chile, the Hon. Gabriel Quijandria, MOE Peru, the Hon. Fernando López, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources El Salvador, the Hon. Mario Roberto Rojas Espino, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Guatemala, and the Hon. Viriato Luís Soares Cassamá, Ministry of Environment and Biodiversity Guinea Bissau are publicly available here.

Learn more about EbA on View documentation on previous EbA Knowledge Days.

Nature-based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Humanitarian Contexts

Ecosystem services, environmental health and safeguarding, and natural hazards are often overlooked within humanitarian crises. Degradation of ecosystems and their services exacerbates peoples’ risk from the hazards and impacts of climate change, reducing access to safe, sufficient natural resources needed for livelihoods and undermining long-term development gains. Meanwhile, environmental and climactic factors play a critical role in the development and trajectory of complex crises.

The cross-network working group on EbA in Humanitarian & Post-Disaster Contexts, chaired by Mercy Corps and IUCN, convenes stakeholders across the global networks of FEBA, EHAN, and PEDRR, to collaboratively address how NbS and environmental safeguarding can be a core component of, and a strategy in, humanitarian aid and development.

In this session, a panel discussion of participants across sectors in NbS for disaster risk reduction explored the contribution of EbA to developing cost-effective, novel, and durable solutions within crisis-hit areas and building immediate and long-term resilience. Interactive small group discussions followed, exploring different themes and deliverables (e.g. policy briefs, a toolkit, and guidance) of the working group’s learning agenda and promoting collective problem-solving and partnership. 

Building Resilience With Nature: Maximizing Ecosystem-based Adaptation through National Adaptation Plan Processes

As part of the EbA & NAPs FEBA Working Group, the guidance note Building Resilience With Nature: Maximizing Ecosystem-based Adaptation through National Adaptation Plan Processes was launched in early 2021.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) has the potential to generate economic returns and provide multiple benefits such as improved health, biodiversity protection, food security, and alternative livelihood opportunities, all of which can build resilience to climate change. With over 10 years of application in global and local contexts, EbA has emerged as an essential approach to adaptation that is effective in building ecological, social, and economic resilience. To fully maximize and deliver EbA at the scale and pace needed, it must be put at the heart of countries’ national development and climate strategies. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process provides an opening to do just this. By enabling countries to strategically integrate adaptation into their decision-making, planning, and budgeting, the NAP process strives to make adaptation part of standard development practice. Produced with IISD and the NAP Global Network, the guidance note is available for download here.

Practical Guide to Implementing Green-Gray Infrastructure

A hybrid green-gray approach to infrastructure — one that combines “green” ecosystem conservation and restoration with “gray” conventional engineering — can generate more benefits and climate resilience for people and nature than either strategy applied alone.

The Practical Guide to Implementing Green-Gray Infrastructure is a tool for identifying, funding, planning, designing, constructing, and monitoring green-gray infrastructure projects, to increase the resilience of vulnerable cities, communities, and assets around the world. The Guide includes 35 case studies and identifies key challenges a practitioner may seek to resolve, and where green-gray solutions can meet project goals and integrate into different land use types.

This is a living document that will continue to be improved and updated as new information is discovered and as design techniques evolve. Learn more about the Green-Gray Community of Practice. The brief is available for download here.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building Back Better from COVID-19

In this new Friends of EbA (FEBA) multimedia story, entitled Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building back better from COVID-19, experiences are documented from communities around the world who are bearing the brunt of the impact of the pandemic, thus, showcasing the potential of EbA for building resilience to complex crises:  including COVID-19.  These lived, front-line experiences demonstrate the ability of EbA to both provide green work and economic recovery to communities in the short term, as well as reduce the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and communities for their health, livelihoods and well-being in the long term.

The multimedia story Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building back better from COVID-19 is available here and a news story with key messages is available here.

Promoting Nature-based Solutions in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

This joint FEBA-PEDRR paper serves as input to the evolving deliberations on the post-2020 GBF under the Convention on Biological Diversity. NbS as an overarching concept can be used to support communication and mainstreaming of different subsets across international, multilateral agreements/global frameworks and their audiences. This brief provides clarity around the terminology of NbS, EbA, and Eco-DRR, and offers concrete suggestions for the inclusion of these approaches in the GBF. The brief is available for download here, and a news story with key messages is available here

Guidebook for Monitoring and Evaluating Ecosystem-based Adaptation Interventions

Effective monitoring and evaluation of EbA outcomes is essential to learn from best practices and reduce uncertainties about efficacy and long-term impacts. Acknowledging this need, FEBA partners came together to produce the Guidebook for Monitoring and Evaluating Ecosystem-based Adaptation Interventions. Drawing from FEBA’s wide network of practice-based experience, the Guidebook provides practitioners and planners with a clear process for developing and operationalizing effective M&E for EbA.The Guidebook is a joint publication by the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), and the FEBA Working Group on Monitoring & Evaluation. Also available in Spanish and Portuguese.

“Ecosystem-based Adaptation”

Wikipedia article

The FEBA Working Group on Wikipedia (comprising individuals from CBD, CI, GIZ, Grupo Boticario, INECC, IUCN, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UN Environment WCMC, WWF Colombia, WWF Germany, and WWF US) co-authored Wikipedia’s first article dedicated to EbA, which went live in August 2019. Read the article on Wikipedia, or download the original text as written by the Working Group.

“Making Ecosystem-based Adaptation Effective – A Framework for Defining Qualification Criteria and Quality Standards” 

FEBA Technical Paper

The FEBA technical paper, Making Ecosystem-based Adaptation Effective – A Framework for Defining Qualification Criteria and Quality Standards, was produced with GIZ, IUCN, and IIED, with support from BMU. This paper provides a practical assessment framework for designing, implementing and monitoring EbA measures by proposing a set of 3 elements, 5 qualification criteria and 20 quality standards and example indicators. Read more: EN | ES | FR

Adaptation planning, implementation and evaluation addressing ecosystems and areas such as water resources

Synthesis report by the secretariat, FCCC/SBSTA/2017/3

This synthesis report, Adaptation planning, implementation and evaluation addressing ecosystems and areas such as water resources, was prepared under the Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in collaboration with members of Friends of EbA. Information in 45 submissions served as primary inputs. Read more.

Shared goals – joined up approaches?

FEBA Technical Discussion Paper

This FEBA Technical Discussion Paper, Shared goals – joined up approaches?, discusses how action under the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 – 2020 needs to come together at the landscape level. Read more.

“Nature Based Solutions for Climate Change Adaptation – Knowledge Gaps”

An analysis of current and prevailing knowledge gaps, needs and barriers concerning climate change adaptation in general, and ecosystem-based adaptation in particular. Read more.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation Monitoring and Evaluation – Indicators

There is a need to develop a set of context and ecosystem specific adaptation criteria and indicators to define, assess and monitor the effectiveness of EbA initiatives. Read more.

Inventory of tools and methodologies for the assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation

Tools are defined as a means or instrument employed to accomplish a specific task, whereas methodologies or approaches are a complete framework that prescribes an entire process for the assessment of vulnerability and adaptation and offers a broad strategic approach. In some instances methodologies consist of varies methods and toolkits to support the process. Read more.

Learning from Participatory Vulnerability Assessments – key to identifying Ecosystem based Adaptation options

Participatory planning combines the involvement of field experts and local community members in order to obtain reliable information on the ecosystem(s) and communities of focus. Community perceptions of local climate related problems allow communities, practitioners and policy makers, to directly address community impacts, through the process of vulnerability assessments. Read more.