Knowledge Products

FEBA works to synthesize multi-stakeholder knowledge on EbA; disseminate this knowledge by convening the global EbA community around high-level events, technical workshops, and expert working groups; and raise awareness and understanding of EbA in adaptation planning processes and multilateral policy frameworks. The CBD COP recognizes FEBA as a key partner “to support Parties in their efforts to promote ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation” (Decision 14/5).

Have a knowledge product, published or upcoming, to contribute to the FEBA website? Fill out this form.

Nature-based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in Humanitarian Contexts

Ecosystem services, environmental health and safeguarding, and natural hazards are often overlooked within humanitarian crises. Degradation of ecosystems and their services exacerbates peoples’ risk from the hazards and impacts of climate change, reducing access to safe, sufficient natural resources needed for livelihoods and undermining long-term development gains. Meanwhile, environmental and climactic factors play a critical role in the development and trajectory of complex crises. The cross-network working group on EbA in Humanitarian & Post-Disaster Contexts, chaired by Mercy Corps and IUCN, convenes stakeholders across the global networks of FEBA, EHAN, and PEDRR, to collaboratively address how nature-based solutions and environmental safeguarding can be a core component of, and a strategy in, humanitarian aid and development. In this session, a panel discussion of participants across sectors in nature-based solutions for disaster risk reduction explored the contribution of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) to developing cost-effective, novel and durable solutions within crisis-hit areas and building immediate and long-term resilience. Interactive small group discussions followed, exploring different themes and deliverables (e.g. policy briefs, a toolkit and guidance) of the working group’s learning agenda and promoting collective problem-solving and partnership. 

Building Resilience With Nature: Maximizing Ecosystem-based Adaptation through National Adaptation Plan Processes

Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) has the potential to generate economic returns and provide multiple benefits, such as improved health, biodiversity protection, food security, and alternative livelihood opportunities, all of which can build resilience to climate change. With over 10 years of application in global and local contexts, EbA has emerged as an essential approach to adaptation that is effective in building ecological, social, and economic resilience. To fully maximize and deliver EbA at the scale and pace needed, it must be put at the heart of countries’ national development and climate strategies. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process provides an opening to do just this. By enabling countries to strategically integrate adaptation into their decision making, planning, and budgeting, the NAP process strives to make adaptation part of standard development practice. Produced with IISD and the NAP Global Network, the guidance note is available for download here.

Practical Guide to Implementing Green-Gray Infrastructure

The Practical Guide to Implementing Green-Gray Infrastructure is a tool for identifying, funding, planning, designing, constructing, and monitoring green-gray infrastructure projects, to increase the resilience of vulnerable cities, communities, and assets around the world. The Guide includes 35 case studies from around the world, identifies key challenges a practitioner may seek to resolve, and where green-gray solutions can meet project goals and integrate into different land use types.

This is a living document that will continue to be improved and updated as new information is discovered and as design techniques evolve. Learn more about the Green-Gray Community of Practice. The brief is available for download here.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building Back Better from COVID-19

In this new Friends of EbA (FEBA) multimedia story, entitled Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building back better from COVID-19, experiences are documented from communities around the world who are bearing the brunt of the impact of the pandemic, thus, showcasing the potential of EbA for building resilience to complex crises:  including COVID-19.  These lived, front-line experiences demonstrate the ability of EbA to both provide green work and economic recovery to communities in the short term, as well as reduce the vulnerabilities of ecosystems and communities for their health, livelihoods and well-being in the long term.

The multimedia story Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Green Recovery: Building back better from COVID-19 is available here and a news story with key messages is available here.

Promoting Nature-based Solutions in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

This joint FEBA-PEDRR paper serves as input to the evolving deliberations on the post-2020 GBF under the Convention on Biological Diversity. As an umbrella term, NbS encompasses approaches of working with nature, such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR), and ecosystem-based mitigation (EbM). NbS as an overarching concept can be used to support communication and mainstreaming of these different subsets across international, multilateral agreements/global frameworks and their audiences. The brief provides clarity around the terminology of NbS, EbA, and Eco-DRR, and offers concrete suggestions for the inclusion of these approaches in the GBF. The brief is available for download here, and a news story with key messages is available here

Guidebook for Monitoring and Evaluating Ecosystem-based Adaptation Interventions

Effective monitoring and evaluation of EbA outcomes is essential to learn from best practices and reduce uncertainties about effectiveness and long-term impacts. Acknowledging this need, FEBA partners came together to produce the Guidebook for Monitoring and Evaluating Ecosystem-based Adaptation Interventions. Drawing from FEBA’s wide network of practice-based experience, the Guidebook provides practitioners and planners with a clear process for developing and operationalizing effective M&E for EbA.The Guidebook is a joint publication by the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), and the FEBA Working Group on Monitoring & Evaluation. Also available in Spanish.

“Ecosystem-based Adaptation”

Wikipedia article

The FEBA Working Group on Wikipedia (comprising individuals from CBD, CI, GIZ, Grupo Boticario, INECC, IUCN, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UN Environment WCMC, WWF Colombia, WWF Germany, and WWF US) co-authored Wikipedia’s first article dedicated to EbA, which went live in August 2019. Read the article on Wikipedia, or download the original text as written by the Working Group.

“Making Ecosystem-based Adaptation Effective – A Framework for Defining Qualification Criteria and Quality Standards” 

FEBA Technical Paper


The FEBA technical paper, Making Ecosystem-based Adaptation Effective – A Framework for Defining Qualification Criteria and Quality Standards, was produced with GIZ, IUCN, and IIED, with support from BMU. This paper provides a practical assessment framework for designing, implementing and monitoring EbA measures by proposing a set of 3 elements, 5 qualification criteria and 20 quality standards and example indicators. Read more: EN | ES | FR

Adaptation planning, implementation and evaluation addressing ecosystems and areas such as water resources

Synthesis report by the secretariat, FCCC/SBSTA/2017/3


This synthesis report, Adaptation planning, implementation and evaluation addressing ecosystems and areas such as water resources, was prepared under the Nairobi Work Programme (NWP) on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in collaboration with members of Friends of EbA. Information in 45 submissions served as primary inputs. Read more.

Shared goals – joined up approaches?

FEBA Technical Discussion Paper

This FEBA Technical Discussion Paper, Shared goals – joined up approaches?, discusses how action under the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 – 2020 needs to come together at the landscape level. Read more.

“Nature Based Solutions for Climate Change Adaptation – Knowledge Gaps”

An analysis of current and prevailing knowledge gaps, needs and barriers concerning climate change adaptation in general, and ecosystem-based adaptation in particular. Read more.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation Monitoring and Evaluation – Indicators

There is a need to develop a set of context and ecosystem specific adaptation criteria and indicators to define, assess and monitor the effectiveness of EbA initiatives. Read more.

Inventory of tools and methodologies for the assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation

Tools are defined as a means or instrument employed to accomplish a specific task, whereas methodologies or approaches are a complete framework that prescribes an entire process for the assessment of vulnerability and adaptation and offers a broad strategic approach. In some instances methodologies consist of varies methods and toolkits to support the process. Read more.

Learning from Participatory Vulnerability Assessments – key to identifying Ecosystem based Adaptation options

Participatory planning combines the involvement of field experts and local community members in order to obtain reliable information on the ecosystem(s) and communities of focus. Community perceptions of local climate related problems allow communities, practitioners and policy makers, to directly address community impacts, through the process of vulnerability assessments. Read more.